Algunos aspectos físicos de la formación de la imagen mamográfica.

Pilar Morán, Margarita Chevalier


This work is focused on the description of some of the basic physical aspects that govern X ray breast imaging. Although the emphasis is placed on the physical aspects of this imaging technique, the essential factors related to the associated radiation risk are also outlined. X ray mammography is still the most important breast imaging technique and has proved to have a greater reliability and sensitivity for the breast cancer detection. Nowadays is an irreplaceable tool for the breast screening programs to detect early breast cancer. The aim of X-ray mammography is to facilitate the visualization, characterization and location of pathological signs that are of three classes: calcifications, particularly finer particles (microcalcifications), dense tissue nodules and spicules of fibrous tissue. The normal mammary tissues and the breast lesions have similar X-ray attenuation properties. In addition, their sizes are in the limit of the resolution capabilities of the systems. In this situation the noise associated with the imaging process can hide the lesion signals. To achieve an image with high quality, X-ray devices and detectors have been specifically designed for mammography

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